## The Kepler Triangle, Phi and Pi

A “Kepler triangle” is a right triangle having edge lengths in a geometric progression, in which the common ratio is √ϕ, where ϕ represents the golden ratio.

Well, let’s construct a square with side length √ϕ that inscribes a Kepler triangle, that is, a right triangle with edges 1 : √ϕ : ϕ (or approximately 1 : 1.272 : 1.618), as shown in the picture. Draw then the circumcircle of the Kepler triangle (highlighted in orange in the picture) whose diameter is the hypotenuse of the triangle.

Then, the perimeters of the square (4√ϕ≈5.0884) and the circle (πϕ≈5.083) coincide up to an error less than 0.1%. From this, we can get the approximation coincidence π≈4/√ϕ

## Fibonacci Right Triangle

The sum of the squares of consecutive Fibonacci numbers is another Fibonacci number.

## Fibonacci Spiral Jigsaw Puzzle

Each piece of this puzzle is similar (the same shape at a different size). The placement of the pieces is based on the golden angle (≈137.5º), and results in a pattern frequently found in nature (phyllotaxis), for instance on sunflowers. The puzzle features 8 spirals in one direction, and 13 in the other. You can build your own Fibonacci spiral puzzle by following John Edmark’s tutorial.

## Circles and Golden Ratio

The last digit of the numbers in the Fibonacci Sequence are cyclic, they form a pattern that repeats after every 60th number: 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 3, 1, 4, 5, 9, 4, 3, 7, 0, 7, 7, 4, 1, 5, 6, 1, 7, 8, 5, 3, 8, 1, 9, 0, 9, 9, 8, 7, 5, 2, 7, 9, 6, 5, 1, 6, 7, 3, 0, 3, 3, 6, 9, 5, 4, 9, 3, 2, 5, 7, 2, 9, 1.