Simple demonstration of apparent size and distance… See how the color rings (*annuli*, in mathematical language) fit snugly.

## Visual Calculus

**Mamikon**

**A. Mnatsakanian**(Armenian: Մամիկոն Մնացականյան) devised in 1959 a visual method to show that the areas of two annuli with the same chord length are the same regardless of inner and outer radii.

As an undergraduate, Mamikon specialized in the development of geometric methods for solving calculus problems by a visual approach that makes no use of formulas, which he later developed into his system of visual calculus.