The Fascinating World of Runic Calendars

The Runic calendar, also referred to as a Rune almanac, served as a perpetual timekeeping tool throughout Northern Europe until the 19th century. Structured with lines of symbols, it marked significant astronomical events and celebrations, including solstices, equinoxes, and Christian holidays. These symbols were often etched onto parchment or carved into various materials such as wood, bone, or horn.

One of the most esteemed examples of these calendars is Worm’s Norwegian runic calendar from 1643, renowned for its bone craftsmanship. Danish Antiquarian Ole Worm featured it in his book “Fasti Danici, universam tempora computandi rationem antiquitus in Dania et vicinis regionibus observatam libris tribus exhibentes.” Although he extensively detailed the winter months in his work, he omitted details regarding the summer season. Fortunately, supplementary insights are provided through ‘runstavs’ and ‘primstavs.’ ‘Runstavs’ served as runic sticks used in divination practices, while ‘primstavs’ were Norwegian wooden calendar sticks primarily employed for timekeeping and weather prediction.

runic calendar

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Beyond 65 digits, π serves no practical purpose

For spatial engineers’ highest accuracy calculations, used in interplanetary navigation, 3.141592653589793 is more than sufficient. Let’s understand why more decimals aren’t needed.

Consider these examples:

• Voyager 1, the farthest spacecraft from Earth, is about 14.7 billion miles away. Using π rounded to the 15th decimal, the circumference of a circle with a radius of 30 billion miles would be off by less than half an inch.

• Earth’s circumference is roughly 24,900 miles. The discrepancy using limited π would be smaller than the size of a molecule, over 30,000 times thinner than a hair.

• The radius of the universe is about 46 billion light years. To calculate the circumference of a circle with a radius of 46 billion light years to an accuracy equal to the diameter of a hydrogen atom, only 37 decimal places are necessary.

• With just 65 decimal places, we could determine the size of the observable universe within a Planck length, the shortest measurable distance.

While π’s digits are endless, for microscopic, macroscopic or cosmic endeavors, very few are necessary.

Feynman π Point

The Feynman point occurs at the 762nd decimal of π, displaying six consecutive nines (999999). Named after physicist Richard Feynman, he humorously shared, “I once memorized 380 digits of π as a high-school kid. My ambitious goal was the 762nd decimal, where it goes ‘999999.’ I’d recite it, reach those six 9’s, and cheekily say, ‘and so on!’ implying π is rational (which it is not).

Illusion vs Reality

“Illusion, a derivative of reality, and vice versa.” – GS

For a little backstory… one day, a follower threw me a curveball: ‘What separates illusion from reality?’ I countered with a snap response: ‘What separates acceleration from speed?’

Perception in Motion: Illusion, Confusion, and Zen Insight

Many perceive the two 3D cross-like shapes as moving significantly, though they remain stationary!

The interplay of color shades (light/dark) on the edges and body of the cross-like wire frames creates the illusion of motion. The alternating shadings simulate “motion blur,” leading some researchers to attribute these illusory movements to delays in luminance processing, producing a signal that deceives the motion system and induces “kinetopsia” (motion perception)..

This brings to mind an anecdote: Two Zen monks debated a flag moved by the wind. One claimed, ‘The flag is moving…’ while the other countered, ‘The wind is moving!’ The monastery’s prior intervened, stating, ‘Not the wind, not the flag; the mind is moving…’

This short anecdote serves to explain that the concept and perception of motion is sometimes ambiguous.

Autokinetic Illusion

Immerse yourself in the mesmerizing experience as blue droplets seemingly sway gracefully, creating an illusion of gentle motion. The yellow horizontal lines contribute to a wave-like dance, enhancing the visual allure.

Hold On Tight” by Gianni A. Sarcone, crafted in 1997.

This op art piece embodies a peripheral drift illusion (PDI), wherein a sawtooth luminance grating in the visual periphery induces the illusion of movement.

Fascinatingly, studies by vision researchers reveal that the illusory motion activates brain regions akin to those triggered by actual movement.

Noteworthy accolades include a feature on Google Science Fair (@googlescifair):

Explore and acquire “Hold On Tight” as prints and posters through our online gallery.