etymology, a root comprises the core form of a word, often in
a primitive attestation or even in a reconstruction. Root forms
have importance in deducing the structure of language families.
The Appendix of Indo-European Roots below is designed to allow the
reader to trace English words derived from Indo-European languages back to their
fundamental components in Proto-Indo-European, the parent language of all ancient
and modern Indo-European languages.
Indo-European is the name given for geographic reasons to the large
and well-defined linguistic family that includes some 150 languages spoken by
about three billion people, including most of the major language families of
Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. Popular languages
in this superfamily include English, Spanish, French, Portuguese, German, Italian,
Russian, Persian, Hindi, Punjabi, and Urdu.